What is a Routing Number?

Your routing number plays a critical role in allowing financial institutions to process transactions coming in or going out of your financial accounts. For the majority of transactions you are likely to engage in, it is not possible for these transactions to be completed without your routing number. From the stand point of every day transactions, you typically need your routing number to send and receive wire transfers, to authorize other types of money transfers or to set up automated transactions such as direct deposits.

But behind the scenes, banks, credit unions and other financial institutions use your routing number to identify your financial institution and to enable the efficient, timely and cost effective processing of your transactions. The routing number was created by the American Bankers Association (ABA) in 1910 and became the industry standard the following year. This origin is why your routing number will sometimes be referred to interchangeably as the ABA number. In addition to providing a directory of the routing numbers for the top banks and credit unions, this page also provides everything you need to know about the ins and outs of routing numbers.


Routing Number Topics Covered in This Post

Anatomy of a Routing Number


The above diagram shows three different routing number variations for Wells Fargo Bank, one of the largest national banks, based on the state their checking account customers are located in. Every routing number is a unique 9-digit number that is composed of three components:

  • Federal Reserve Routing Symbol – the first four digits
  • ABA Institution Identifier – this is always the second four digits
  • Check Digit – this is always the final digit

In addition to the routing number being comprised of three components, each component has additional rules that determine what numbers are used. Specifically, the allocation of the first two digits of the Federal Reserve Routing Symbol varies depending on the type of transaction or institution involved. For example, for the digits 01 through 12, this represents all checks and electronic transactions of banks, Federal Reserve Banks, Federal Home Loan Banks, Federal Land Banks, Federal Intermediate Credit Banks, Farm Credit Banks and state government units. As you can see from the above diagram, because Wells Fargo Bank would fall under the “bank” category, each of the routing numbers shown begins with digits that fall within the range of 01 through 12. As a point of comparison, Navy Federal Credit Union‘s routing number is 256074974; it begins with the digits 25, which is clearly out of the the 01 through 12 range because Navy Federal Credit Union is not a bank, and in fact does not fall into any of the institution categories detailed earlier.

The anatomy of a routing number is important as it reveals how financial institutions use routing numbers to process transactions. These aren’t just 9 digits that were selected at random. Instead, these digits were selected very deliberately so that when a transaction is presented the receiving financial institution can look at the routing number, break it down into its component parts and very quickly be able to know a lot of important information about the sender.

Can Banks Have More Than One Routing Number?

Yes – banks, credit unions and other financial institutions can have and frequently do have multiple routing numbers. Eligible financial institutions can have up to 9 additional routing numbers according to the American Bankers Association. Sometimes banks could elect to have multiple routing numbers because of how large their operations are, particularly banks that operate across multiple states and regions. Banks can also have multiple routing numbers as a result of mergers and acquisitions.

When a bank acquires another bank or financial institution, the surviving bank now consists of multiple banks which had individual routing numbers. There are several examples of this in the below list. For example, TD Bank has several routing numbers based on the state their customers might be based in. TD Bank customers in Connecticut have a different 9 digit number from TD Bank customers in Florida for example. In the diagram shown earlier, Wells Fargo Bank checking account customers in Texas have different routing numbers from customers in New York state.

Routing Number and SWIFT Code: What’s The Difference?

Your routing number is used to identify your bank (or credit union) when you engage in transfers domestically. As discussed earlier, this number traces its origin to the American Bankers Association – it was created for domestic purposes. If you however want to send or receive funds from sources outside of the United States, your bank needs to utilize a different payment network to facilitate the transfer.

This payment system is known as the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT) and is used by more than 11,000 institutions globally to facilitate international transfers. Your routing number is domestic while a SWIFT code is explicitly international by intent and design. To continue with our example of Wells Fargo Bank, for domestic wires, customers need to use the bank’s routing number which is 121000248, but for international wire transfers customers need to use the SWIFT Code WFBIUS6S.

When Do You Need Your Routing Number?

There are many situations where you’ll need to have your routing number, and it is always to facilitate a transaction of some form. Typically you will need to find the routing number for the relevant account (checking or savings account) in the following situations:

  • Setting Up Payroll Direct Deposit: this could be for your employment to receive your periodic paychecks or pay from the government in the case of things like social security or unemployment benefits.
  • Setting Up Auto-Bill Payments: you will also need your routing number to set up electronic bill payments linked to your bank accounts. This includes recurring payments such as utility bills, cable bills and cellphone bills.
  • Wire Transfer: to receive a wire transfer the sender will need not only your bank account number but also your routing number, which is used to identify your bank.
  • Tax Purposes: whether you file electronically or with an accountant or other tax professional, if you choose to receive your refund electronically via direct deposit, you will need to provide your routing number.

Where Can You Find Your Routing Number?


As shown above, the best place the find your routing number is in your check book. Each check has the 9 digit number and account number on the bottom of the check. Your routing number, as noted earlier, is the 9 digit number on the bottom of the check and is used to identify your financial institution. In the event that you don’t have access to checks and need to find out the routing number for your bank (or any bank) we’ve created the below directory to help!

Routing Number For The Top 100 Banks in the United States

  • Chase Bank Routing Number: 75000019
  • Bank of America Routing Number: 26009593
  • Wells Fargo Routing Number: 121000248
  • Citibank Routing Number: 31100209
  • U.S. Bank Routing Number: 91000022
  • PNC Bank Routing Number: 43000096
  • Truist Bank Routing Number: 57000668
  • Goldman Sachs Bank Routing Number: 124085260***
  • TD Bank Routing Number:
    • Connecticut: 011103093
    • Florida: 067014822
    • Maine: 211274450
    • Massachusetts/Rhode Island: 211370545
    • Metro DC/Maryland/Virginia: 054001725
    • New Hampshire: 011400071
    • New Jersey/Delaware: 031201360
    • New York (Metro NYC): 026013673
    • New York (Upstate, former Banknorth customers): 021302567
    • North Carolina/South Carolina: 053902197
    • Pennsylvania: 036001808
    • Vermont: 011600033
  • Charles Schwab Bank Routing Number: 121202211
  • Capital One Routing Number: 51405515
  • Bank of New York Mellon Routing Number: 21000018
  • State Street Bank Routing Number: 81200528
  • Fifth Third Bank Routing Number: 42000314
  • Silicon Valley Bank Routing Number: 121140399
  • Morgan Stanley Routing Number: 021272778
  • Citizens Bank Routing Number: 211170114
  • HSBC Routing Number: 022000020
  • Northern Trust Routing Number: 102006371
  • First Republic Bank Routing Number: 321081669
  • Huntington Bank Routing Number: 044000024 (Domestic Transfers)
  • Ally Bank Routing Number: 124003116
  • BMO Harris Bank Routing Number: 71025661
  • Regions Bank Routing Number: 62005690
  • M&T Bank Routing Number: 22000046
  • Union Bank Routing Number: 122000496
  • American Express Bank Routing Number: 124085066
  • UMB Bank Routing Number: 044000804
  • Capital One Routing Number: 051405515
  • Signature Bank Routing Number: 026013576
  • USAA Bank Routing Number: 314074269
  • Discover Bank Routing Number: 31100649
  • Bank of the West Routing Number: 121100782
  • Banco Santander Routing Number: 231372691
  • Comerica Routing Number: 121137522
  • City National Bank Routing Number: 122016066
  • Zions Bank Routing Number: 124000054
  • First Horizon Bank Routing Number: 84000026
  • Synchrony Bank Routing Number: 021213591
  • E*TRADE Bank Routing Number: 25607291
  • Bank of China Routing Number
    • New York Branch Routing Number/A.B.A: 026003269
    • Queens Branch Routing Number/A.B.A:026003269
    • Chicago Branch Routing Number/A.B.A: 026003269 (WIRE); 071027106 (ACH)
    • Los Angeles Branch Routing Number/A.B.A: 026003269 (WIRE); 122041662 (ACH)
  • People’s United Bank Routing Number: 221172186
  • Popular Bank Routing Number: 026008811
  • East West Bank Routing Number: 322070381
  • New York Community Bank Routing Number: 226071004
  • First Citizens Bank Routing Number: 53100300
  • Synovus Bank Routing Number: 61100606
  • Western Alliance Bank Routing Number: 122105980
  • Frost Bank Routing Number: 114000093
  • BOK Financial Routing Number: 103900036
  • Deutsche Bank Routing Number: 21001033
  • CIBC Bank Routing Number: 071006486
  • Bancorp South Routing Number: 84201278
  • First-Citizens Bank Routing Number: 124084834
  • Valley National Bank Routing Number: 21201383
  • UMB Financial Routing Number: 101000695
  • SouthState Bank Routing Number: 063114030
  • Pacific Western Bank Routing Number: 122238200
  • First National Bank Routing Number: 104000016
  • Charles Schwab Routing Number: 121202211
  • TIAA Bank Routing Number: 063000225
  • Pinnacle Bank Routing Number: 104913912
  • Raymond James Bank Routing Number: 063191749
  • Prosperity Bank Routing Number: 113122655
  • Hancock Whitney Bank Routing Number: 65106619
  • Commerce Bank Routing Number: 101000019
  • Associated Bank Routing Number: 75900575
  • Webster Bank Routing Number
    • CT customers: 211170101
    • MA or RI customers: 211370231
    • NY customers: 021973019
    • New Mil Bank customers: 211170156
  • Texas Capital Bank Routing Number: 111017979
  • MidFirst Bank Routing Number: 303087995
  • Umpqua Bank Routing Number: 123205054
  • Webster Bank Routing Number: 221970443
  • Barclays Bank Routing Number: 031101321
  • United Bank Routing Number: 56004445
  • Sallie Mae Bank Routing Number: 124385119
  • FirstBank Routing Number: 107005047
  • Investors Bank Routing Number: 221272031
  • First National Bank of Omaha Routing Number: 104000016
  • Arvest Bank Routing Number: 82900872
  • Glacier Bank Routing Number: 292970825
  • Fulton Bank Routing Number: 31301422
  • Flagstar Bank Routing Number: 272471852
  • First Hawaiian Bank Routing Number:
    • Hawaii: 121301015
    • Guam: 121405238
    • CNMI: 121403065
  • Simmons Bank Routing Number: 82900432
  • Old National Bank Routing Number: 86300012
  • Ameris Bank Routing Number: 061201754
  • Eastern Bank Routing Number: 011301798
  • Bank of Hawaii Routing Number: 121301028
  • City National Bank of Florida Routing Number: 066004367
  • First Midwest Bank Routing Number: 71901604
  • Pacific Premier Bank Routing Number: 322285781
  • Columbia Bank Routing Number: 125108272
  • United Community Bank Routing Number: 61112843
  • Cathay Bank Routing Number: 1222-0395-0
  • First Bank Routing Number: 221571473
  • Rockland Trust Routing Number: 11304478
  • Atlantic Union Bank Routing Number: 051403164
  • WaFd Bank Routing Number: 325070980
  • First Interstate Bank Routing Number: 92901683

***This represents the routing number for Marcus by Goldman Sachs, the consumer banking division of the investment bank which is now ranked second of the banks in Manhattan.

Routing Number For The Largest Credit Unions in the U.S.